Varicose veins are twisted, enlarged veins. Any superficial vein may become varicosed, but the veins most commonly affected are those in your legs. That’s because standing and walking upright increases the pressure in the veins of your lower body.
For many people, varicose veins and spider veins may simply be a cosmetic concern. For other people, varicose veins can cause aching pain and discomfort. Sometimes varicose veins lead to more-serious problems. Treatment may involve self-care measures or procedures by your doctor.
Varicose veins may not cause any pain. Signs you may have varicose veins include:
- Veins that are dark purple or blue in colour
- Veins that appear twisted and bulging; they are often like cords on your legs
When painful signs and symptoms occur, they may include:
- An achy or heavy feeling in your legs
- Burning, throbbing, muscle cramping and swelling in your lower legs
- Worsened pain after sitting or standing for a long time
- Itching around one or more of your veins
- Skin discoloration around a varicose vein
Weak or damaged valves can lead to varicose veins. Arteries carry blood from your heart to the rest of your tissues, and veins return blood from the rest of your body to your heart, so the blood can be recirculated. To return blood to your heart, the veins in your legs must work against gravity.
Muscle contractions in your lower legs act as pumps, and elastic vein walls help blood return to your heart. Tiny valves in your veins open as blood flows toward your heart then close to stop blood from flowing backward. If these valves are weak or damaged, blood can flow backward and pool in the vein, causing the veins to stretch or twist.
These factors increase your risk of developing varicose veins:
- Obesity:Being overweight puts added pressure on your veins.
- Age:The risk of varicose veins increases with age. Aging causes wear and tear on the valves in your veins that help regulate blood flow. Eventually, that wear causes the valves to allow some blood to flow back into your veins where it collects instead of flowing up to your heart.
- Family history:If other family members had varicose veins, there’s a greater chance you will too.
- Standing or sitting for long periods of time:Your blood doesn’t flow as well if you’re in the same position for long periods.
- Pregnancy:During pregnancy, the volume of blood in your body increases. This change supports the growing fetus, but also can lead to enlarged veins in your legs. Hormonal changes during pregnancy may also play a role.
Complications of varicose veins, although rare, can include:
- Ulcers:Painful ulcers may form on the skin near varicose veins, particularly near the ankles. A discolored spot on the skin usually begins before an ulcer forms. See your doctor immediately if you suspect you’ve developed an ulcer.
- Blood clots:Occasionally, veins deep within the legs become enlarged. In such cases, the affected leg may become painful and swell. Any persistent leg pain or swelling warrants medical attention because it may indicate a blood clot — a condition known medically as thrombophlebitis.
- Bleeding:Occasionally, veins very close to the skin may burst. This usually causes only minor bleeding. But any bleeding requires medical attention.
There’s no way to completely prevent varicose veins. But improving your circulation and muscle tone may reduce your risk of developing varicose veins or getting additional ones. The same measures you can take to treat the discomfort from varicose veins at home can help prevent varicose veins, including:
- Watching your weight
- Eating a high-fiber, low-salt diet
- Avoiding high heels and tight hosiery
- Elevating your legs
- Changing your sitting or standing position regularly